Hydrosource brand linear polyacrylamide (PAM) is a long chain anionic polymer that has revolutionized erosion control, soil conditioning, and
runoff management in agriculture and construction. Dissolved Hydrosource® PAM acts as negatively charged “glue” that holds soil in place and
maintains soil structure, often reducing erosion by over 90%. One ounce of PAM can save as much as 1000 pounds of topsoil. PAM binds nutrients,
weed seeds, and pathogenic organisms, keeping them in the field or onsite improving fertility, and protecting waterways and ground water. In many
cases, it even improves crop production. Used yearly on millions of acres throughout the USA and the world, PAM has gained widespread acceptance
as the low-cost exceptionally effective solution for preventing erosion and runoff contamination. Hydrosource® PAM is available as a dry granular
powder, in slow release tablets, and as a liquid emulsion.
WHAT DOES PAM DO?
Dissolving Hydrosource® PAM in water exposes negatively charged sites that have the ability to bind positively charged soil, nutrient, and
contaminant particles. When you apply PAM for irrigation erosion control, pond and canal sealing, stockpile sealing, construction and road dust
control, or hydroseeding:
? PAM holds existing soils in place stabilizing fields, unpaved roads and airfields, irrigation and wastewater ditches, construction sites,
hydroseeding applications, and reforestation projects. It will not change the structure of your soil, but will maintain whatever work
you and nature have already put into it.
? PAM binds suspended soils and colloids in the flow to form clumps or aggregates that precipitate out keeping the soil and nutrients
in the ditch, field, or onsite.
? PAM improves net infiltration in fine to medium textured soils by an average of 15–50%. PAM does not change the structure of the
soil, but rather maintains the pores during irrigations or rainfall improving net infiltration by reducing surface sealing.
? PAM binds contaminants such as Nitrogen (80%+), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), total phosphorus (P) (80%+), pesticides, weed
seeds, and microorganisms commonly found in runoff, and pulls them out of suspension, dramatically improving runoff water quality.
? PAM binds cationic contaminants such as heavy metals and chemicals commonly found on waste remediation and construction sites.
? PAM enhances hydroseeding applications by tightening the slurry stream, holding the mixture in place, improving the water holding
capacity of the mix and the underlying soil to maximize germination rates and stabilize the soil structure for better erosion control
IS PAM SAFE?
Used as directed, Hydrosource® PAM is harmless to your family, farm animals, and the environment. Studies show it does not accumulate in crops or
organisms. PAM is relatively safe compared to fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. Standard precautions include avoiding prolonged contact with the
skin, rinse exposed areas thoroughly to avoid skin irritation, and, when using dry forms, avoid inhaling dust and keep it out of eyes. Intensive
governmental and university research over the past 30+ years has demonstrated that, when used as directed, it is not only harmless to the environment
with a high rate of biodegradation, but also benefits the environment by dramatically reducing the movement of contaminants and suspended soils in
irrigation and runoff water. The surfactants and oils used in the emulsion can harm some aquatic organisms and may require additional precautions.
HOW TO GET THE BEST RESULTS
Before applying Hydrosource® Pam, it is important to study this section, and then find your application in the following section.
1) Application Tip: Apply PAM to your field or site while the soil is disturbed, because when water flows over the soil, the soil particles
bind together forming a seal that prevents PAM from preserving the structure and infiltration potential.
2) Dry Granular, Tablets, or Emulsion? Each formulation has advantages and preferred applications. Dry Granular is the most cost
effective and easy to store. Apply it directly into soil or turbid water. Tablets are easy to use and store. Effervescent Tablets dissolve easily
in water to make a PAM solution for spraying on fields, sites, or roads. Apply Slow-Release Tablets by hanging them in mesh bags over the
tracks of irrigation pivots. Place them directly into the turbulent flow of water in irrigation ditches, construction site runoff, storm drains,
and after check dams using mesh sacks or cages. Emulsions are 30–50% PAM by weight mixed with oil and surfactants that dissolve when
mixed with water releasing the encapsulated PAM. Used in sprinkler, drip, and spray applications, they are more expensive per unit of PAM.
3) How to apply PAM: The simplest is to spread Hydrosource® PAM by hand, and rake it into the soil if necessary. Use a seed spreader of
any size to spread it over a field or jobsite. Automatic measuring dispensers measure dry PAM into irrigation flows. Chemigation systems
use Effervescent Tablets and Emulsions for injection into sprinkler and drip irrigation systems. Put Slow-Release Tablets in cages placed
in gated pipes, culverts, or ditches, or in bags staked in ditches or canals. Put Effervescent Tablets and Emulsions in water trucks for easy
spraying. For dust control, scratching or tilling PAM into soil will enhance performance.
4) What type of soil and water do I have? Application rates depend on soil type, slope, alkalinity, water chemistry, and pH.
Hydrosource® PAM works best on clay loam and silt soils with less effect on sandy soils. PAM works best when applied evenly with good
quality water containing less sediment. High sediment levels will use much of the applied PAM at the top of the field, site, or ditch
requiring additional application to insure good field or site coverage. Large soil particles and high concentrations of charged elements
such as minerals and organic matter in the soil or water will reduce the effectiveness of PAM, necessitating a higher application rate.
Moderate electrical conductivity (EC) and low SAR (Sodium Absorption Ratio) are ideal. High Sodium or pH levels inhibit PAM
performance by tightly binding the PAM making it unavailable to bind other charged particles. A moderate EC in water or soil indicates
the presence of charged ions such as Calcium and Magnesium that help bind the PAM to soil particles. If these charged particles are not
present in sufficient quantities, additional PAM or a source of additional charged particles such as Gypsum that contains calcium
improves PAM performance. The actual pH of the water or soil is important because high pH (over 8.0) will limit the performance of PAM.
5) What is your terrain and weather? A sloped site or field may require more Hydrosource® PAM to achieve the same soil or dust holding
effect as flat land. Strong winds, precipitation, or heavy usage may require heavier application rates and/or more intensive site prep.
Hydrosource® is a registered trademark of Castle International Resources Company
6) Figuring Out How Much To Use: The important question is, “what is the desired concentration and result for my job?” This varies by
type of project and conditions. Typical flood irrigation requires an average of 3 lbs/acre to achieve the desired concentration of 10 ppm,
but dust control applications and pond or canal sealing may require significantly higher rates (6–20 lbs/acre).
7) Careful Handling and Mixing are essential for good results: Water turbulence, rate of flow, pressure, and temperature effect
PAM solution and dispersal. Always add Hydrosource® PAM to vigorously moving or stirred water. Without sufficient turbulence for
mixing, PAM tends to form gel clumps that dissolve more slowly, stick to equipment, or carried out of the target area undissolved. When
using cold water, if possible, pre-dissolve PAM in warmer water for better results. Although Emulsions are already liquid, they still
require some mixing to remove the encapsulation around the PAM. Slow Release Tablets release PAM at different rates depending on
the surface area, water temperature, and flow. Tighter sacks or cages allow less surface area, while increased water flow and turbulence
increase dissolution. There are two approaches to applying dry granular PAM. With the Patch Method, spread PAM by hand along the
first yard of a dry ditch or furrow at the rate of about 1 ounce per 1000 feet. When the water flows over the PAM, it slowly dissolves. This
method is simple but gives less control over application rates. The second method is to use a metered dispenser over the flow. This
method gives greater control over the rate and duration of application. Hydroseeding uses dry granular PAM or emulsion mixed in the
slurry or sprays on dissolved effervescent tablets to tack or hold the mix to the earth.
8) What can go wrong? Sediment settling that blocks ditches, pipes, or furrows. Hydrosource® PAM adheres to ditches, pipes, and other
equipment blocking flow and gumming things up. Depending on the type of irrigation system, high sediment loads (>5g/l) may require
settling ponds. PAM applied several yards up the ditch will precipitate out sediment before the water enters the furrows or gated pipes.
When this is not possible, monitor pipes and furrows for sediment accumulation. Clogging can be a big problem with low flow rates. Over
application of PAM has a reverse effect and keeps sediment in suspension or may seal the soil reducing infiltration. Too much applied to
a field or site may create a gooey mess on the surface requiring removal or the application of salt or bleach to break it down.
First, see the HOW TO GET THE BEST RESULTS section. The following directions depend on that information.
1) Ditch and Furrow Irrigated Fields: For fields with a slope of less than 3.5%, use any form of Hydrosource® PAM applied
appropriately that achieves a concentration of 10 ppm in the first advance, or a concentration of 3 ppm throughout the irrigation. Both
strategies achieve good results. Typical rates of PAM application are 3–5 pounds of actual PAM per acre. With slopes in excess of 3.5%,
sediment-laden irrigation, or high water or soil pH (8.0+), more PAM may be required to achieve optimal results. When adding PAM to
the irrigation flows, add PAM until the water reaches approximately. of the length of the field. With the patch method, this is not
possible. Apply PAM in the first 2–3 irrigations of a season. Irrigation applications typically remain effective for 4–8 weeks. Once crops
are established, benefits from additional PAM application decline.
2) Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation: Spread dry Hydrosource® PAM on the entire field before irrigation, or inject into the system with a
chemigation system. The preferred forms for a chemigation system are effervescent tablets and emulsion. With sprinkler or drip application,
the application rate depends on the amount of irrigation water applied per acre. You will need a chemigation system with a backflow.
Begin the flow of water in the main system before beginning injection. The lines must be flushed with crop oil or mineral oil after use.
Tilling dry PAM into the field provides multiple benefits. Besides reducing runoff and displacement from sprinklers and rain, it protects
the initial tilled soil structure from rain, snowmelt, and wind. Application rates for dry granular on an entire field are higher, but it will
provide additional benefits by maintaining soil structure over the whole field throughout the growing season, especially if there is a gap
between when the field is prepared and when irrigation begins. In addition, because dry granular PAM is cheaper than emulsion and
better for the environment, you may see greater benefits for the same cost.
3) Dust Abatement, Parking, Road, and Airstrip Creation: Hydrosource® PAM will hold down soil and dust under almost any
conditions. Apply dry granular PAM by hand or with a seed spreader. Rake it in for greater holding, then water or wait for rain. Spray
emulsion or aqueous solutions of PAM with portable sprayers, truck-mounted tanks, or water trucks for instant holding. Application rates
vary from 3–20 pounds per acre. Applications last from 1–6 months depending upon methods, conditions, and application rates. Add
supplementary materials to enhance its holding power. Mixing with Fine Grind cross-linked polyacrylamide (CLP) will improve the
holding power by cross-linking with the PAM and surrounding soil, and it will hold water longer to lengthen the setting time. Add
aluminum chlorohydrate to create more positively charged sites for bonding.
Developed for use in Iraq and Afghanistan to create instant roads, airstrips, and helicopter landing sites, dry granular PAM, Fine Grind CLP, and
aluminum chlorohydrate applied together in a 6:1:1 ratio, called Tri-PAM is a proven and cost-effective technology. Just mix Tri-PAM into the
soil at the prescribed ratio, water well, and spray with a coating of PAM emulsion or aqueous PAM diluted to about 5 ppm. This is approximately 5
ounces of dry PAM or 10 ounces of emulsion in 1500 gallons of water. Maintenance is easy; just spray every 2–4 weeks with a diluted PAM
solution. Longevity depends on conditions, usage, and maintenance. If treated properly, it may last a year or more.
4) Hydroseeding: Mix dry granular Hydrosource® PAM into the tank at rates of 3–5 pounds per acre, 1–3 effervescent tablets per acre, or
approximately 1 gallon of emulsion per acre. Higher rates are required on slopes. Add dry PAM gradually to the tank while it is mixing.
Both dry granular and emulsion require thorough mixing. Add Fine Grind CLP to increase water holding within the mix.
5) Runoff Management: Apply Hydrosource® PAM to fields and project sites to limit runoff contamination. Use PAM in drainage systems
to minimize waterway and groundwater contamination, and to maintain the integrity of drainage ditches and furrows. Place dry PAM in
granular or tablet form at the head of and along the first 25–50 feet of drainage ditches and culverts to capture sediment and
contaminants in runoff and keep them out of sensitive riparian environments. Application rates vary depending on ditch size and length.
A common method is to stake several bags of PAM tablets along the first 25–50 feet of a ditch, or you can apply a patch of dry granular PAM.
Wet Hydrosource® PAM is very slippery and poses a significant slip-and-fall hazard. Treat wet spills with sand or salt and scoop
up. Do NOT dispose of by washing down the drain; it may clog plumbing. Do not eat. Keep out of reach of children and pets. Avoid
PAM dust, and wash hands after use. Remove contacts before handling. The MSDS is available on our website. PAM has been
determined to be nonhazardous by the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200.
To Order or to Speak With Us About Hydrosource® PAM – Call Castle Toll-Free at 888-703-0222
Copyright © 2000–2021 Castle International Resources Company – All Rights Reserved